With the new T2 chip, there is no data access recovery port on the new MacBook Pros. While Apple may have another backup plan for data recovery, it has not yet shared it with users (or us).
Since users frequently save important data on their devices, this omission should encourage them to more heavily invest in a cloud backup solution and/or external hard drive
According to Apple's internal 2018 MacBook Pro Service Readiness Guide, technicians are advised to encourage you to backup to Time Machine frequently. Currently this is the only way to preserve your data if your laptop fails.